Q-17. What are the parameters for which standards are prescribed?
A. Standards are prescribed for following parameters:
Water : pH, Colour, BOD, COD, Total Dissolved Solids, Temperature, Suspended Solids, Ammonical Nitrogen, Oil & Grease, Toxicants, Fluorides, Phenol, Cyanides, Heavy Metals, Pesticides, Bacteriology, Fical Coliforms and Fluorides.
Air : Suspended Particulate Matters, SOx, NOx, HCl, Cl2Ammonia, RSPM, etc.
Q-18. What is meant by Command & Control approach towards pollution control?
A. Command and control refers to the present "Top down" approach under which the entire pollution control dispensation is prescribed from above. Prescriptions are in the form of orders which all are obliged to comply with. There is no scope for a bottom up approach under which each polluting unit can be given individual set of parameters.
Q-19. Besides command and control, what other approaches are in practice to prevent and control pollution?
A. In certain countries market based instruments have either replaced command and control or practiced in-conjunction with command and control. In this situation there is possibility of one unit trading its waste load with another unit. However, under the Indian situation as yet command and control reigns supreme with some scope for economic instruments. The industries also adopt voluntary schemes based upon CREP under which they voluntarily submit to adoption of measures aimed at environmental compliance beyond the legal norms. They also benchmark themselves against International Standards, like getting ISO 14001 certificate.
Q-20. What is meant by "End of the pipe treatment"?
A. "End of the pipe treatment" connotes the present arrangements under which the industry is allowed to carry on with the production process and treat the waste as per the stipulated standards and dispose of the same. This concept is contrary to the possibility of adopting technologies and processes, which will reduce a waste generation at source.
Q-21. What is the alternative to end of the pipeline approach?
A. The alternative is waste prevention and minimization, by adoption of suitable technologies and prevention of waste minimization. Waste can be segregated, recycled and reused so that the waste load entering to any medium comes down.
Q-22. Is it possible to prevent generation of waste by industries?
A. Yes. It is a question of using the right process technology and other measures for waste prevention mentioned above. With the advancement of new process technologies and raw materials there is steady improvement towards prevention of generation of waste in some industrial sectors. These processes, however, have not reached such a stage that complete prevention of waste generation by all industries is possible.
Q-23. What are the methods in practice for waste reduction, recycling and reuse?
A. Cleaner Production, Cleaner Technology, ensuring mass balance, stochiometry and to improve the process with respect to yield, Reverse Osmosis, distillation, solvent recovery, clarification, purification, use of waste as a raw material, waste exchange etc are some of the proven methods.
Q-24. Are small units exempted from the regulations pertaining to pollution control?
A. The law is applicable to all units irrespective of size SSI units are eligible for very few exemptions.